Strengthening the IAEA: Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Security

The Partnership for a Secure America assembled a broadly based International Working Group to examine in depth the IAEA’s current funding structure and sources, and explore ways that non-state donors can better assist the IAEA in developing additional contributions for its nuclear security and technical cooperation programmes.

The Group was composed of individuals from seventeen countries representing all geographic regions of the world and each functional grouping of the IAEA. It included former senior officials from the IAEA Secretariat, former Governors or Ambassadors who represented their countries at the IAEA, and other experts with IAEA experience.

The International Working Group agreed on ten recommendations which it believes would help put the IAEA in a better place to attract, receive and utilize non-traditional contributions to its technical cooperation and nuclear security programmes. They suggested that the Agency should:

  1. Develop a Comprehensive Non-State Funding Strategy
  2. Strong Commitment of the Director General and Senior Management
  3. Improve Communications and Outreach Strategy: Build a Brand
  4. Engage with Non-State Donors: Create Public-Private Partnerships
  5. Address Transparency Concerns: Establish Metrics
  6. Modernize the Agency’s Engagement with the Private Sector
  7. Work More Closely with Other IGOs
  8. Identify Priorities Shared with Donors and Recipient Countries
  9. Solicit Support from Civil Society and NGOs
  10. Follow the Example of the PACT

PSA Convenes Expert Working Group, Suggests Changes to Improve IAEA Partnering Capacity

For Immediate Release: July 19, 2016

Washington, D.C.— An international Working Group convened by Partnership for a Secure America (PSA) released its final report examining ways in which non-state sources can help fund the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) nuclear security and  technical cooperation activities.

The report, Strengthening the IAEA: Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Security, includes ten recommendations on how the IAEA can partner more effectively with the private sector, the nonprofit and donor communities, and with other international governmental organizations. The report notes that IAEA’s budgets, comprised almost exclusively of contributions from its Member States, have not kept pace with new mandates and growing demands for its services, including those in nuclear security and technical assistance.

The Working Group believes that the IAEA should develop “a comprehensive strategy to diversify its revenue stream beyond reliance on state-based contributions.” The report’s completion and publication is an important milestone in a two-year project funded by Carnegie Corporation of New York (CCNY).

The Working Group was composed of individuals from seventeen countries, including former senior officials from the IAEA Secretariat, former Governors or Ambassadors who represented their countries at the IAEA, and other experts with IAEA experience.

“These experts have been working tirelessly for the past several months to complete this project,” said Dr. Andrew Semmel, Project Director and Chairman of the Board of Directors of PSA, “and we are happy to have completed such a challenging and worthy task.”

The report’s findings represent the views solely of the international Working Group and have not been endorsed by CCNY and do not represent a CCNY position.



CONTACT: Andrew Szparaga (202-293-8580), or

Richard Nephew Discusses the Iran Nuclear Agreement

On May 19, Richard Nephew, lead sanctions expert for the U.S. team negotiating with Iran, met with participants in the PSA-Harvard Negotiation Program and alumni and current participants of the Congressional Partnership Program, where he discussed applying the tools and techniques of negotiation to reach a deal. In this off-the-record dinner, Nephew discussed his role in the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, the negotiation process, and gave participants advice in future negotiations.


Richard Nephew

Richard Nephew served as the lead sanctions expert for the US team negotiating with Iran from August 2013 to December 2014. At the same time, he served as the principal deputy for the inaugural Coordinator for Sanctions Policy at the State Department, where he briefed senior officials on a range of sanctions policy issues–including those involving Russia, North Korea and the Islamic State. Nephew was the director for Iran at the National Security Council from 2011 to 2013, where he was responsible for the development and execution of the sanctions strategy toward Iran. He is currently a research scholar and program director at the Center on Global Energy Policy at Columbia University.

Amb. Robert Gallucci Discusses Managing North Korea

Ambassador Robert Gallucci attended an off-the-record dinner with alumi from the Congressional Partnership Program, where he discussed recent developments in North Korea’s nuclear weapon program and their global implications.

Ambassador Robert Gallucci (ret.)

Ambassador Gallucci served as Dean of the School of Foreign Service for 13 years until he left in July 2009, to become president of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. He was appointed dean in 1996, after 21 years of distinguished service in a variety of government positions, focusing on international security. As Ambassador-at-Large and Special Envoy for the U.S. Department of State, he dealt with the threats posed by the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. He was chief U.S. negotiator during the North Korean nuclear crisis of 1994, and served as Assistant Secretary of State for Political Military Affairs and as Deputy Executive Chairman of the UN Special Commission overseeing the disarmament of Iraq following the first Gulf War. Ambassador Gallucci earned his Bachelor’s degree at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and his Master’s and Doctoral degrees at Brandeis University.

Loose Nukes and Dirty Bombs- Next Steps for Nuclear Security


Joan Rohlfing, President, Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI)

Dan Lipman, Co-Chair of the Nuclear Industry Summit and Vice President, Supplier and International Programs, Nuclear Energy Institute

Kelsey Davenport, Director of Nonproliferation Policy, Arms Control Association

Moderated By:

Ambassador Thomas Pickering, Chair, Former Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, and former Ambassador to the Russian Federation, India, Israel, El Salvador, Nigeria, Jordan, and the United Nations

Three experts drew attention to the upcoming fourth and final Nuclear Security Summit to be held in Washington on March 31-April 1, 2016 and what Congress can do to strengthen this effort. More than 50 heads of state will consider the actions taken by countries (e.g. closed facilities, opened centers of excellence), and decide on how to continue to counter the threat of nuclear terrorism in the wake of the summits. Almost 2,000 metric tons of nuclear materials that could be used in nuclear weapons—highly enriched uranium and plutonium—are spread across hundreds of sites in 25 countries around the world.  A significant quantity of nuclear material is not well secured and vulnerable to theft, and recent incidents at nuclear facilities demonstrate that governments must do more to secure these materials and keep them out of the hands of terrorists.

All panelists anticipate that this nuclear security summit will be the last and that participating states will need to devise means to continue the nuclear security review, monitoring, and reporting function provided through the Summit process. Noting that Congress decreased the nuclear nonproliferation budget since last year, and that 8,500 sites need enhanced security, speakers suggested using the oversight role of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine nuclear forensics, radiologic sources, and best practices, as well as increasing the efforts to protect against cyber security, among others.


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The Iran Forum

July 23rd – The Iran Nuclear Deal: Pitfalls and Promises

At this fifth event, panelists discussed the meaning of the agreement and explored what’s next for all parties.

Speakers: Doyle McManus, Moderator – Washington Columnist, Los Angeles Times. Olli Heinonen – Senior Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University; Former Deputy Director General and Head of Department of Safeguards, International Atomic Energy Agency. Elizabeth Rosenberg – Senior Fellow and Director of the Energy, Economics and Security Program, Center for a New American Security; Former Senior Sanctions Advisor at the U.S. Treasury Department. Robin Wright – Joint Fellow, U.S. Institute of Peace and Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; Author and Journalist, recently returned from Iran for The New Yorker. Joe Cirincione – President, Ploughshares Fund; Former Professional Staff Member, House Armed Services Committee.


APRIL 20th, 2015: Politics of a Nuclear Deal: Former U.S. & Iranian Officials Debate

At the fourth event, former U.S. and Iranian officials assessed the status of the talks and the political dynamics that will determine the fate of any agreement in Washington and Tehran.

Speakers: Stephen J. HadleyModerator and Lead Discussant, Chairman of the Board at the U.S. Institute of Peace & former National Security Advisor (2005-2009). Ali-Akbar Mousavi, former member of Iran’s parliament (2000-2004), Visiting Fellow at Virginia Tech & Human Rights Advocate; Jim Slattery, former Congressman (D-KS, 1983-1995) & Partner at Wiley Rein LLP; Howard Berman, former Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee (D-CA, 1983-2013) & Senior Advisor at Covington & Burling LLP; Michael Singh, former Director for Middle East Affairs at the National Security Council (2005-2008) & Senior Fellow at The Washington Institute.


JULY 8th, 2014: Iran Sanctions: What the U.S. Cedes in a Nuclear Deal

The third event covered the complex questions and challenges of sanctions in the Iran nuclear talks.

Speakers: Suzanne Maloney, Brookings Institution fellow and former State Department Policy Planning; Kenneth Katzman, Congressional Research Service and former CIA analyst; Elizabeth Rosenberg, Center for New American Security and former Treasury Department Senior Advisor; Robin WrightModerator, Journalist and Author at the U.S. Institute of Peace and Woodrow Wilson International Center.


JUNE 10th, 2014: Nuclear Flashpoints: U.S.-Iran Tensions Over Terms and Timetables

This second event covered the dizzying array of timetables and disparate interpretation of terms.

Speakers: Stephen J. HadleyModerator, Chairman of the Board at the U.S. Institute of Peace & former National Security Advisor (2005-2009); Jon Wolfsthal, Deputy Director at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies; Daryl Kimball, Executive Director at the Arms Control Association; Robert Litwak, Vice President for Scholars & Academic Relations, and Director, International Security Studies, at the Wilson Center.


MAY 13th, 2014: The Rubik’s Cube of a Final Agreement

This first event explored the 10 disparate issues to be resolved in any final agreement and the many formulations for potential solutions.

Speakers: Robert Einhorn, Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution & former Special Advisor to the Secretary of State; Alireza Nader, RAND Corporation & author of Iran After the BombJoe Cirincione, President of the Ploughshares Fund; Colin KahlModerator, Center for New American Security & former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense

Iran Sesries Sponsors

CPP Dinner with Olli Heinonen, former IAEA Deputy Director General

With continuing concerns over nuclear programs in Iran and North Korea, the U.S. and international partners remain uncertain how to address threats – perceived and real – from these unpredictable nations. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) serves a critical role in this space, providing intelligence on these programs and expert assessments of technical capabilities.

On September 9th, PSA held a special off-the-record CPP dinner with Dr. Olli Heinonen, former Deputy Director General of the IAEA and current Senior Fellow at Harvard’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, to discuss these country’s nuclear programs, IAEA oversight, current technical assessments, and options for the international community. As the former head of the IAEA Department of Safeguards, Heinonen led teams of international investigators to examine nuclear programs of concern around the world and inspected nuclear facilities in South Africa, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya and elsewhere, seeking to ensure that nuclear materials were not diverted for military purposes. He led the Agency’s efforts to identify and dismantle nuclear proliferation networks, including the one led by Pakistani scientist A.Q. Khan, and he oversaw its efforts to monitor and contain Iran’s nuclear program.

To learn more about PSA’s Congressional Partnership Program, visit

Dr. Olli Heinonen

Olli Heinonen is a Senior Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. His research and teachings include: nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, verification of treaty compliance, enhancement of the verification work of international organizations, and transfer and control of peaceful uses of nuclear energy.

Before joining the Belfer Center in September 2010, Olli Heinonen served 27 years at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna. Heinonen was the Deputy Director General of the IAEA, and head of its Department of Safeguards. Prior to that, he was Director at the Agency’s various Operational Divisions, and, as inspector, including at the IAEA’s overseas office in Tokyo, Japan.

Heinonen led teams of international investigators to examine nuclear programmes of concern around the world and inspected nuclear facilities in South Africa, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Libya and elsewhere, seeking to ensure that nuclear materials were not diverted for military purposes. He also spearheaded efforts to implement an analytical culture to guide and complement traditional verification activities. He led the Agency’s efforts to identify and dismantle nuclear proliferation networks, including the one led by Pakistani scientist A.Q. Khan, and he oversaw its efforts to monitor and contain Iran’s nuclear programme.

Prior to joining IAEA, he was a Senior Research Officer at the Technical Research Centre of Finland Reactor Laboratory in charge of research and development related to nuclear waste solidification and disposal. He is co-author of several patents on radioactive waste solidification.

Heinonen is the author of several articles, chapters of books, books, and publications ranging from the IAEA and nuclear non-proliferation issues, to regional nuclear developments. His writings and interviews have been published in various newspapers and magazines including: Foreign Policy, The Wall Street Journal, the Guardian, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Arms Control Today, Der Spiegel, Le Monde, the Helsingin Sanomat, the New York Times, the Mehr news, Die Stern, the Haaretz, the New Statesman, the Washington Post, the BBC, and the Time. His policy briefings have been published by the Belfer Center, the Atlantic Council, the Nautilus Institute, the Institute for Science and International Security, the Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, and the Carnegie Endowment.

Olli Heinonen studied radiochemistry and completed his PhD dissertation in nuclear material analysis at the University of Helsinki.

Bipartisan Panel of Former U.S. Negotiators Urge Final Deal on Iran, Strong Verification

Two foremost experts on Iran expressed support for the interim agreement — the Joint Plan of Action — on Iran and President Obama’s current approach at a meeting on Capitol Hill today sponsored by the Partnership for a Secure America. “The policy is highly bipartisan,” said Nicholas Burns, former Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs under President George W. Bush and currently professor at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. He agreed with Robert Einhorn, former State Department Special Advisor for nonproliferation and arms control in the Obama administration and currently senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, that Congress should refrain from further sanctions legislation at this time. “It is the President who negotiates, not 535,” said Burns, “and Congress should support him.”
One of the goals is to lengthen the time for Iranian nuclear “breakout.” Einhorn pointed out that without an interim agreement Iran could make significant progress, and substantially shorten the breakout timeline. He believes while each government is stressing the benefits to their country of the interim deal, a final comprehensive agreement will be very tough to achieve.

Both experts agreed that there is concern that the interim deal will open the floodgates to business activity, but stated that there is no evidence of this happening at present. Einhorn said that the sanctions will remain in place, with some benefits available for Iran, but incentives still remain for Iran to negotiate. Einhorn said the IAEA will play a major role in the final deal with Iran, although Iran must go well beyond the additional access by inspectors and information provided by an Additional Protocol. Burns added that verification is a critical issue, noting, “Don’t trust, verify.”

The event was sponsored by the bipartisan nongovernmental organization, the Partnership for a Secure America (, which includes a balanced number of Republican and Democratic luminaries such as Madeleine Albright and Howard Baker on its Advisory Board. The video of the entire meeting is available at CSPAN (

Both former negotiators noted that while the U.S. spent years not talking to Iran and spent much of its time sanctioning, in recent months it has become routine for Iranians and Americans to sit down to talk. The U.S. has not had an official dialogue with Iran for more than three decades. The two experts said that the two sides will have to work in a way in which Iran does not have to admit guilt but still satisfies the West.

PSA Press Release Feb 7 2014

At the Table: Perspectives on Iran Negotiations from Two Former U.S. Negotiators

FEB 7 – PUBLIC EVENT Nicholas Burns (Former Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, 2005-2008) and Robert Einhorn (Former State Department Special Advisor for Nonproliferation and Arms Control, 2009-2013)


WHEN: February 7, 2014. 11:00am – Noon

WHERE: 2118 Rayburn House Office Building, Capitol Hill

Western countries have long suspected that Iran is pursuing nuclear weapons while the Iranian government denies that accusation and insists on its right to use nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. In November, the two sides reached an interim agreement under which Iran constrains its nuclear program in return for a modest easing of sanctions — a deal that began to take effect on January 20th.

Long-held mistrust between the U.S. and Iran, however, threatens to undermine the temporary arrangement and, possibly, a long-term agreement. What should the U.S. ask for in the final deal? What tack should western negotiators take to improve the likelihood of success? How can each side improve confidence in the other’s commitment to follow through? What is the role of the IAEA?

On February 7th, PSA held a bipartisan discussion with two former U.S. negotiators on Iran to gain valuable insights on these questions and what is in store for the future relationship between the U.S. and Iran, as well as its neighbors in the region.


R. Nicholas Burns, Former Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs

Nicholas Burns has a distinguished career in government and the Foreign Service, including Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs (2005 – 2008) and lead United States negotiator on Iran’s nuclear program. Based on his experiences in this position, Mr. Burns will be able to provide a first-hand account of formulating Iran policy and establishment of UN and U.S sanctions regimes. He is Professor of the Practice of Diplomacy and Politics at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government.

Robert Einhorn, Former State Department Special Advisor for Nonproliferation and Arms Control, The Brookings Institution

Robert Einhorn is a senior fellow with the Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Initiative and the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence, both housed within the Foreign Policy program at Brookings. Einhorn focuses on arms control (U.S.-Russia and multilateral), nonproliferation and regional security issues (including Iran, the greater Middle East, South Asia, and Northeast Asia), and U.S. nuclear weapons policies and programs.

CPP Alumni Dinner w/ IAEA Deputy Director General Janice Dunn Lee

DEC 4 – In recent years, leading nations have begun to focus efforts on the global nuclear governance agenda. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responsible for assisting in the development and practical application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes and serving as the international watchdog monitoring nuclear programs to warn of any changes towards weapons development. As the P5+1 talks continue with Iran on the limitations of their nuclear pursuits and intentions, IAEA serves the purpose of tracking the country’s program. IAEA and Iran have engaged in constructive technical discussions that have led to a collaborative statement promising continued dialogue and the peaceful intentions of Iran’s nuclear programme. Dialogue between the two has made it possible for the IAEA to monitor and issue updates on Iran’s nuclear activities. A recent in-depth report by the IAEA indicated a lull in Iran’s nuclear installments starting in August at the time of President Hassan Rouhani’s innauguration.

Partnership for a Secure America held a private CPP alumni dinner with IAEA Deputy Director General Janice Dunn Lee to discuss the IAEA’s role in the current conversation, the future of the IAEA, and the how nuclear energy, security, and nonproliferation play a role in the global security landscape.

Janice Dunn Lee is the Deputy Director General, Head of the Department of Management at the International Atomic Energy Agency. She was appointed to the position on 1 January 2012.

Prior to this, Ms. Dunn Lee was the Deputy Director-General of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) in Paris, France. Earlier, Ms. Dunn Lee was the Director of International Programs for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) where she managed international cooperative programmes in nuclear safety, technology, and materials, the import and export licensing of these materials and radioactive waste safety.

Ms. Dunn Lee joined the NRC in 1975 and held a number of progressively responsible positions. These included: Senior Assistant for international nuclear policy to four successive NRC Chairmen; Licensing Review and Policy Analyst in the Office of International Programs; and Chief for International Safeguards, Office of Nuclear Materials Safety and Safeguards where she participated in programmes to assist countries to protect, control and account for nuclear materials. She was selected for the Senior Executive Service in 1998. She was appointed as the Deputy Director of the Office of International Programs in 1998 and as Director in 1999.

Ms. Dunn Lee participated in several special assignments and programmes while at the NRC. From 1989 to 1991, she served as a Congressional Fellow in the Office of Senator James A. McClure of Idaho. In 1993, she was on assignment to the Office of Senator Alan K. Simpson of Wyoming, where she served as a staff member on the Committee on Environment and Public Works. Ms Dunn Lee graduated from the NRC Supervisory Development Program in 1995 and the Federal Executive Institute in 1991.

Ms. Dunn Lee received a B.A. degree in Sociology from the University of California at Berkeley in 1973 and an M.A. degree in International Relations from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, in 1975


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