Protecting U.S. Security, Upholding American Values

The United States detainee interrogation policy can live up to American values and, at the same time, protect our national security. This policy, supported by overwhelmingly bipartisan legislation in 2005, states: “No individual in the custody or under the physical control of the U.S. Government, regardless of nationality or physical location, shall be subject to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.”* Such principles can be attained by following the U.S. Army Field Manual on Human Intelligence Collector Operations. We believe these lawful, humane, and effective techniques will produce actionable intelligence while adhering to our founding principles.

To ensure the integrity of this critical process, Congress should conduct effective, real-time oversight on America’s intelligence communities. Failure to live up to these internal safeguards adversely affects the nation’s security and damages America’s reputation in the world.

* Detainee Treatment Act of 2005



Richard Armitage, Deputy Secretary of State 2001-2005
Howard Berman, U.S. Congressman (D-CA) 1983-2013
David Boren, U.S. Senator (D-OK), 1979-1994, Governor of Oklahoma, 1975-1979
Harold Brown, Secretary of Defense 1977-1981
David Durenberger, U.S. Senator (R-MN) 1978-1995
Lee Hamilton, U.S. Congressman (D-IN) 1965-1999
Gary Hart, U.S. Senator (D-CO) 1975-1987
Rita Hauser, Chair, International Peace Institute 1992-Present
Carla Hills, U.S. Trade Representative 1989-1993
Thomas Kean, Governor of New Jersey 1982-1990, 9/11 Commission Chairman
Richard C. Leone, Senior Fellow and Former President of The Century Foundation
Carl Levin, U.S. Senator (D-MI) 1979-2015
Richard Lugar, U.S. Senator (R-IN) 1977-2013
Robert C. McFarlane, National Security Advisor 1983-1985
Donald McHenry, Ambassador to the United Nations 1979-1981
William Perry, Secretary of Defense 1994-1997
Charles Robb, U.S. Senator (D-VA) 1989-2001, Governor of Virginia 1982-1986
Ken Salazar, Secretary of the Interior 2009-2013, U.S. Senator (D-CO) 2005-2009
George Shultz, Secretary of State 1982-1989
John E. Sununu, U.S. Senator (R-NH) 2003-2009
William H. Taft IV, Deputy Secretary of Defense 1984-1989

At The Water’s Edge

Measuring Bipartisan Cooperation on National Security and Foreign Policy in Congress, 1945-2009
April 2010

This report provides the first statistical analysis of Congressional bipartisanship on national security and foreign policy issues, confirming anecdotal evidence of rising partisanship with hard data. In addition, the report analyzes causes of partisanship and provides recommendations for restoring the bipartisan center in Congress.

The past half century has witnessed a pronounced shift away from the tradition of bipartisan foreign policy and toward partisan polarization of all political debates, including those dealing

with the country’s basic national security interests. Experts, advocates, and politicians themselves have taken note of this trend, citing anecdotal evidence of a broad “partisan drift” in American politics. However, to date, there has been little formal study of the role of partisan politics in national security and foreign policy decision-making in Washington. This report seeks to address that gap by measuring bipartisanship and partisanship in Congressional voting records on national security and foreign policy from the end of World War II to the present. Based on this analysis of over six decades of Congressional voting, the Report concludes that there is indeed an overall trend of increased partisanship in national security and foreign policy voting, despite significant upward and downward variation in the short term.


Science Diplomacy is Crucial to U.S. Foreign Policy

The United States is and must remain the global leader in science, technology, higher education and innovation. Respect for American science and technology is evident even in regions where there are strong negative views of U.S. foreign policies – students from around the world still flock to attend our colleges and universities. As we seek to promote our national security interests overseas, we should turn this strength into an effective tool for U.S. diplomacy.

Many of our most pressing foreign policy challenges – energy, climate change, disease, desperate poverty and underdevelopment, and WMD proliferation – demand both technological and policy solutions. In these and other areas, U.S. national security depends on our willingness to share the costs and benefits of scientific progress with other nations.

Enhanced international scientific cooperation can also lead to greater economic prosperity at home. The U.S. needs new technologies and markets to create jobs, grow new industries and rebuild consumer and investor confidence. Sustainable international partnerships allow us to leverage limited resources and give American companies access to cutting edge research and expertise around the world.

We, the undersigned Democrats and Republicans, believe President Obama, the Administration, and Congress should elevate the role of Science Diplomacy in U.S. national security and foreign policy, and should work to:

  • Strengthen links between U.S. and foreign scientific communities as a key part of U.S. diplomacy;
  • Offer scientific cooperation and technological assistance as a bridge to opening broader dialogue with former adversaries and as an incentive to prevent conflict;
  • Bring the world’s top scientists and engineers together to tackle pressing global challenges like energy security, climate change, poverty, disease, and WMD proliferation; and
  • Provide funding for exchange programs, collaborative research, technical assistance and capacity building to fully qualified U.S. governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Now is the time to draw upon every tool of U.S. power to promote our interests in the world. We should make maximum use of a core strength of this country – Science Diplomacy.


Peter Agre Nobel Prize, Chemistry, 2003; AAAS President 2009-10
Howard Baker U.S. Senator (R-TN) 1967-85
David Baltimore Nobel Prize, Physiology or Medicine, 1975
Samuel Berger National Security Advisor 1997-2001
Vinton G. Cerf Vice President & Chief Internet Evangelist, Google
Rita Colwell Director, National Science Foundation 1998-2004
Paula J. Dobriansky Under Secretary of State 2001-09
Slade Gorton U.S. Senator (R-WA) 1981-87, 1989-2001
Lee Hamilton U.S. Congressman (D-IN) 1965-99; PSA Co-Chair
Gary Hart U.S. Senator (D-CO) 1975-87
Siegfried S. Hecker Director, Los Alamos National Laboratory 1986-97
Carla Hills U.S. Trade Representative 1989-93
Roald Hoffmann Nobel Prize, Chemistry, 1981
Alice Huang President, AAAS 2010-11
Nancy Kassebaum-Baker U.S. Senator (R-KS) 1978-97
Thomas Kean Governor, New Jersey 1982-90; 9/11 Commission Chair
Neal Lane Science Advisor to the President 1998-2001
David Lee Nobel Prize, Physics, 1996
John Lehman Secretary of the Navy 1981-87
John H. Marburger III Science Advisor to the President 2001-09
William Perry Secretary of Defense 1994-97
Thomas Pickering Under Secretary of State 1997-2000; Chair, CRDF Advisory Council
Peter Raven Director, Missouri Botanical Garden
John Whitehead Deputy Secretary of State 1985-88
Frank Wisner Under Secretary of State 1992-93
William Wulf President, National Academy of Engineering 1996-2007; Vice-Chair, CRDF Board of Directors





Please read the Baltimore Sun op-ed on political science and the San Diego Union-Tribune op-ed on science diplomacy and conflict reduction, both written by Dr. Peter Agre and Amb. Thomas Pickering. In addition, please look at the San Francisco Chronicle’s blog piece on global security and scientific progress.

This project is made possible by the generous support of CRDF, AAAS, and the Richard Lounsbery Foundation.