Posts

Our Best Weapon Against Nuclear Proliferation

 

WE DON’T NEED A NEW GRAND BARGAIN.
WE NEED TO STRENGTHEN THE ONE WE SIGNED 4 DECADES AGO.

nptstatement_1For nearly 40 years, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have provided the stability and the structure necessary to control the spread of nuclear weapons. Without the NPT, there is no doubt that more countries would possess nuclear weapons. Without the IAEA, which has functioned as the indispensable watchdog monitoring civilian nuclear activities and reporting on potential violations of IAEA safeguards, the world would certainly be more dangerous.

Still, there are many challenges, which were amplified by the contentious NPT Review Conference in 2005. But now is the time to strengthen the treaty’s core principles and
reinforce the mechanisms that support them, rather than lament their shortcomings. With renewed dedication and leadership from the United States, the NPT and IAEA can
continue to be important tools for the global community to confront countries that develop nuclear capabilities in violation of their commitments and to reduce the risk that terrorists will acquire these devastating weapons.

As we prepare for the NPT Review Conference in 2010, we, the undersigned Republicans and Democrats, strongly encourage the Obama Administration to take decisive action to support the NPT and the IAEA.

– Reaffirm the NPT as the cornerstone of global nonproliferation and disarmament efforts by sending a high-level delegation to the 2010 Review Conference.

– Strengthen enforcement mechanisms for use against countries deemed in violation of their NPT obligations.

– Commit to work with all states possessing nuclear weapons to reduce arsenals to the minimum achievable level. Enhance U.S.-Russian cooperation and joint leadership on non-proliferation and disarmament, including renewal or replacement of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).

– Promote measures to ensure that all countries have access to peaceful nuclear energy without creating additional risks of proliferation and terrorism.

– Establish multilateral arrangements, such as assured international fuel supply mechanisms, to discourage the spread of enrichment and reprocessing capabilities.

– Support the IAEA safeguards mission through an increase in resources, training, equipment and personnel, and assist other states in using peaceful nuclear applications to address poverty and the challenges associated with underdevelopment.

– Work with NPT and IAEA member states to increase the IAEA’s authority for greater access to suspect nuclear sites and universal implementation of the Additional Protocol.

– Encourage countries to participate fully with IAEA nuclear security programs to help ensure that nuclear materials are not accessible to terrorists.

– Work aggressively to complete a verifiable, irreversible, and nondiscriminatory Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT).

– Continue to work aggressively to ensure high confidence in stockpile reliability and multilateral verification mechanisms compatible with a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing.

Signatories

Howard Baker, US Senator (R-TN) 1967-85
Lucy Wilson Benson, Under Secretary of State 1977-80
Samuel Berger, National Security Advisor 1997-2001
Harold Brown, Secretary of Defense 1977-81
Frank Carlucci, Secretary of Defense 1987-89
John C. Danforth, US Senator (R-MO) 1977-95
Kenneth M. Duberstein, White House Chief of Staff 1988-89
Slade Gorton, US Senator (R-WA) 1981-87, 1989-2001
Thomas Graham, Jr., Special Representative of the President for Arms Control, Non-proliferation and Disarmament 1994-97
Lee Hamilton, US Congressman (D-IN) 1965-99, Co-Chair, PSA Advisory Board
Gary Hart, US Senator (D-CO) 1975-87
Rita Hauser, Chair, International Peace Institute
Carla Hills, US Trade Representative 1989-93
Nancy Kassebaum Baker, US Senator (R-KS) 1978-97
Thomas Kean, Governor, New Jersey 1982-90, 9/11 Commission Chair
John Lehman, Secretary of the Navy 1981-87
Richard Leone, President, The Century Foundation
Robert McFarlane, National Security Advisor 1983-85
Donald McHenry, US Ambassador to the UN 1979-81
Robert S. McNamara Secretary of Defense 1961-68
Sam Nunn, US Senator (D-GA) 1972-96
William Perry, Secretary of Defense 1994-97
Thomas Pickering, Under Secretary of State 1997-2000
Warren Rudman, US Senator (R-NH) 1980-92, Co-Chair, PSA Advisory Board
George Shultz, Secretary of State 1982-89
Alan Simpson, US Senator (R-WY) 1979-97
Theodore Sorensen White House Special Counsel 1961-63
John C. Whitehead, Deputy Secretary of State 1985-88
Timothy E. Wirth, US Senator (D-CO) 1987-93
Frank Wisner, Under Secretary of State 1992-93

 

 

This project is made possible by the generous support of Ploughshares Fund.

U.S. and Russia: A Window of Opportunity

The U.S. and Russia share a wide range of critical interests, from preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, to addressing global energy concerns, to combating international terrorism and the illegal drug trade. Russia’s heavy hand at home and with its neighbors is troubling, but these concerns must be addressed through effective U.S.-Russian dialogue, not an escalating war of words. Two decades after the end of the Cold War, it is time to strengthen and renew U.S.-Russian cooperation. We, the undersigned, agree that to repair the U.S.-Russia relationship, both sides must take steps to restore mutual confidence and trust. The Obama Administration can begin by:

  • Emphasizing the importance of the NATO-Russia Council and inviting Russia to participate fully in a collective security strategy, beginning with peace and stability for Afghanistan;
  • Engaging in discussions aimed at securing Russian cooperation to establish effective defenses against missile attacks for Europe while providing Russia with security assurances;
  • Encouraging Russia to take a leadership role in multilateral negotiations with Iran to stop uranium enrichment;
  • Advancing the US-Russia dialogue on arms control and non-proliferation, and working to extend or replace the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which could be followed by another stage of verified nuclear disarmament;
  • Reiterating U.S. support for Russia’s WTO candidacy, calling on Congress to repeal the “Jackson-Vanik” trade sanctions, and encouraging other member states to offer Russia a clear path to membership based on its commitment to the WTO Charter; and
  • Expanding the US-Russia dialogue on energy and climate change, to include seeking common ground on environmental concerns and new oil and gas pipelines to guarantee reliable energy supplies for the entire North Atlantic region.

If these steps are met by Russia with similar good faith and pragmatism, Presidents Medvedev and Obama, as new leaders, can seize a unique opportunity to renew cooperation based on mutual trust and shared interests.

 

Signatories

Howard Baker, US Senator (R-TN) 1967-85
Samuel Berger, National Security Advisor 1997-2001
Harold Brown, Secretary of Defense 1977-81
Frank Carlucci, Secretary of Defense 1987-89
James F. Collins, US Ambassador to Russia 1997-2001
John C. Danforth, US Senator (R-MO) 1977-95
Kenneth M. Duberstein, White House Chief of Staff 1988-89
Susan Eisenhower, President, Eisenhower Group, Inc.
Slade Gorton, US Senator (R-WA) 1981-87, 1989-2001
Lee Hamilton, US Congressman (D-IN) 1965-99, PSA Co-Chair
Gary Hart, US Senator (D-CO) 1975-87
Arthur Hartman, Ambassador to Soviet Union 1981-87
Rita E. Hauser, Chair, International Peace Institute
Carla Hills, US Trade Representative 1989-93
E. Neville Isdell, Chairman, US-Russia Business Council
Nancy Kassebaum Baker, US Senator (R-KS) 1978-97
Thomas Kean, Governor, New Jersey 1982-90
Donald M. Kendall, former Chairman and CEO, Pepsico
Eugene K. Lawson, Vice Chairman, U.S. Export-Import Bank 1989-93
John Lehman, Secretary of the Navy 1981-87
Richard Leone, President, The Century Foundation
Jack Matlock, Ambassador to Soviet Union 1987-91
Robert McFarlane, National Security Advisor 1983-85
Donald McHenry, Ambassador to UN 1979-81
Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense 1961-68
Sam Nunn, US Senator (D-GA) 1972-96
William Perry, Secretary of Defense 1994-97
Thomas Pickering, Undersecretary of State 1997-2000
Warren Rudman, US Senator (R-NH) 1980-92, PSA Co-Chair
Alan Simpson, US Senator (R-WY) 1979-97
Theodore Sorensen, White House Special Counsel 1961-63
James Symington, US Congressman (D-MO) 1969-77
Edward Verona, President, US-Russia Business Council
John Whitehead, Deputy Secretary of State 1985-88
Timothy E. Wirth, US Senator (D-CO) 1987-93
Frank Wisner, Undersecretary of State 1992-93

WMD Report Card

On the sixth anniversary of the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Partner- ship for a Secure America (PSA) announced an initiative to monitor and evaluate implementation of key unfulfilled recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. One of the top priorities of this effort was to follow up on the Commission’s recommendation that the US government apply maximum effort to preventing a WMD terror attack on the United States by combating proliferation of weapons and materials around the world.

In 2004, the 9/11 Commission concluded that Al Qaeda still sought to commit major terrorist attacks against the United States, and that in the future they and other terrorists would try to acquire and use weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. To that end, the Commissioners advised the President and Congress that “preventing the proliferation of these weapons warrants a maximum effort.”

In 2005, the 9/11 Public Discourse Project found that the US government had made “insufficient progress” in implementing that recommendation, giving implementation efforts a “D” on its final report card. That same report concluded that “prevent- ing terrorists from gaining access to weap- ons of mass destruction must be elevated above all other problems of national security because it represents the greatest threat to the American people.” In 2006, the Partnership for a Secure America echoed this conclusion in a statement signed by twenty-two former senior officials from both parties.

Today, almost seven years after the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the threat of a new, major terrorist attack on the United States is still very real. A nuclear, chemical or biological weapon in the hands of terrorists remains the single greatest threat to our nation. While progress has been made in securing these weapons and materials, we are still dangerously vulner- able. That is why our next President, in close cooperation with the US Congress, must elevate to the highest priority our efforts to secure these weapons and materials at their source, and prevent their transit into the United States.

This special report contains the results of analysis by independ- ent experts who examined US government programs to prevent nuclear, chemical, and biological terrorism. These expert analyses focused on the time period following the 9/11 Public Discourse Project’s 2005 assessment through the present, to determine in particular whether and what additional progress has been made against the threat of WMD terrorism. Based on the experts’ conclusions, additional research and interviews, and the assessments of our bipartisan Advisory Board, PSA has assembled this Report Card on US government efforts to prevent WMD terrorism.

 

 

 

Nuclear Terrorism

September 2008

US Policies to Reduce the Threat of Nuclear Terror
Brian D. Finlay
This report, part of the WMD Report Card Initiative, analyzes current US government policies and programs to prevent nuclear terrorism, giving these efforts a grade of “C.”

PARTNERSHIP FOR A SECURE AMERICA

1129 20th St., NW, Suite 500
Washington, D.C. 20036
tel: +1202-293-8580
info@psaonline.org